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Dyslexia (阅读障碍症)

Dyslexia is a broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person's fluency or comprehension accuracy in being able to read, and spell, and which can manifest itself as a difficulty with phonological awareness, phonological decoding, orthographic coding, auditory short-term memory, and/or rapid naming. Dyslexia is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. It is believed that dyslexia can affect between 5 to 10 percent of a given population although there have been no studies to indicate an accurate percentage.

There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional. Reading disabilities, or dyslexia, is the most common learning disability, although in research literature it's considered to be a receptive language-based learning disability.

Accomplished adult dyslexics may be able to read with good comprehension, but they tend to read more slowly than non-dyslexics and may perform more poorly at nonsense word reading (a measure of phonological awareness) and spelling. Dyslexia is not an intellectual disability, since dyslexia and IQ are not interrelated as a result of cognition developing independently.

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms of dyslexia vary according to the severity of the disorder as well as the age of the individual.

Preschool-aged children
It is difficult to obtain a certain diagnosis of dyslexia before a child begins school, but many dyslexic individuals have a history of difficulties that began well before kindergarten. Children who exhibit these symptoms early in life have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed as dyslexic than other children. These symptoms include:
  • delays in speech
  • slow learning of new words
  • difficulty in rhyming words, as in nursery rhymes
  • low letter knowledge
  • letter reversal or mirror writing (for example, "Я" instead of "R")
Early primary school children
  • Difficulty learning the alphabet or letters order
  • Difficulty with associating sounds with the letters that represent them (sound-symbol correspondence)
  • Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words(phonological awareness)
  • Difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words (phonemic awareness)
  • Difficulty with word retrieval or naming problems
  • Difficulty learning to decode written words
  • Difficulty distinguishing between similar sounds in words; mixing up sounds in polysyllabic words (auditory discrimination) (for example, "aminal" for animal, "bisghetti" for spaghetti)
Older primary school children
  • Slow or inaccurate reading (although these individuals can read to an extent).
  • Very poor spelling which has been called dysorthographia (orthographic coding)
  • Difficulty reading out loud, reading words in the wrong order, skipping words and sometimes saying a word similar to another word (auditory processing disorder)
  • Difficulty associating individual words with their correct meanings
  • Difficulty with time keeping and concept of time when doing a certain task
  • Difficulty with organization skills (working memory)
  • Children with dyslexia may fail to see (and occasionally to hear) similarities and differences in letters and words, may not recognize the spacing that organizes letters into separate words, and may be unable to sound out the pronunciation of an unfamiliar word (auditory processing disorder).
  • Tendencies to omit or add letters or words when writing and reading.
Secondary school children and adults
Some people with dyslexia are able to disguise their weaknesses (even from themselves) and often do acceptably well — or better — at GCSE level (U.K. - at 16 years old). Many students reach higher education before they encounter the threshold at which they are no longer able to compensate for their learning weaknesses.

One common misconception about dyslexia is that dyslexic readers write words backwards or move letters around when reading. In fact, this only occurs in a very small population of dyslexic readers. Dyslexic people are better identified by writing that does not seem to match their level of intelligence from prior observations. Additionally, dyslexic people often substitute similar-looking, but unrelated, words in place of the ones intended (what/want, say/saw, help/held, run/fun, fell/fall, to/too, who/how etc.)[citation needed].

Several learning disabilities often occur with dyslexia, but it is unclear whether these learning disabilities share underlying neurological causes with dyslexia.[39] These disabilities include, but are not limited to:
  • Dysgraphia— a disorder which expresses itself primarily through writing or typing, although in some cases it may also affect eye–hand coordination direction or sequence oriented processes such as tying knots or carrying out a repetitive task. In dyslexia, dysgraphia is often multifactorial, due to impaired letter writing automaticity, finger motor sequencing challenges, organizational and elaborative difficulties, and impaired visual word form which makes it more difficult to retrieve the visual picture of words required for spelling. Dysgraphia is distinct from dyspraxia in that dyspraxia is simply related motor sequence impairment.
  • Dyscalculia— a neurological condition characterized by a problem with basic sense of number and quantity and difficult retrieving rote math facts. Often people with this condition can understand very complex mathematical concepts and principles but have difficulty retrieving basic math facts involving addition and subtraction.
  • Attention Deficit Disorder — a high degree of co-morbidity has been reported between ADD / ADHD and dyslexia, although the contributions of dyslexia-related challenges such as auditory verbal working memory to attention issues has not been well established
  • Cluttering— a speech fluency disorder involving both the rate and rhythm of speech, resulting in impaired speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and nonrhythmic, consisting of rapid and jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing. The personality of people with cluttering bears striking resemblance to the personalities of those with learning disabilities

There is no cure for dyslexia, but dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write with appropriate educational support. Early intervention is very helpful.

Especially for undergraduates, some consideration of what 'reading' is and what it is for can be useful. There are techniques (reading the first sentence [and/or last] of each paragraph in a chapter, for example) which can give an overview of content. This can be sufficient for some purposes.[original research?] Since stress and anxiety are contributors to a dyslexic's weaknesses in absorbing information, removing these can assist in improving understanding. When a dyslexic knows that not every reading experience must be onerous, it greatly helps their mental approach to the task.

The best approaches acknowledge that the objective in helping to improve a dyslexic's 'reading' is not to 'read-like-a-non-dyslexic-does', but to find a way of extracting information from text that works efficiently for someone who processes such information differently from the majority.

For dyslexia intervention with alphabet writing systems the fundamental aim is to increase a child's awareness of correspondences between graphemes and phonemes, and to relate these to reading and spelling. It has been found that training focused towards visual language and orthographic issues yields longer-lasting gains than mere oral phonological training.

The best form of approach is determined by the underlying neurological cause(s) of the dyslexic symptoms.

Context sensitive spell checkers combined with text-to-speech systems offer forms of assistive technology to dyslexia users, supporting reading and writing.

Recent research suggests that adaptive working memory training using a program called Jungle Memory was effective in boosting IQ, working memory, and literacy scores in students with dyslexia.[59]

Fast ForWord software, which works on auditory processing, working memory and other aspects of dyslexia has also been successful in helping dyslexia.

Source : Wikipedia

1 位帅哥美女留言 :

syeds said...

We can also say that Dyslexia person generally has a good grasp of phonetic concept.


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